The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science
Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS Paradigm) is a line of research that cuts across several fields of the life sciences,
social sciences, psychology, physics, metrology and philosophy of science to enable
transdisciplinary explorations that match the complexity of individuals and
A central concern is to critically analyse, improve and redevelop metatheories, methodologies and research
practices needed for comprehensive investigations of the various kinds of
phenomena studied in or in relation to individuals.
The TPS Paradigm has been applied in various empirical studies
involving human individuals of different ages and sociocultural backgrounds
as well as individuals from more
than 10 different species, especially, primates.