Transdisciplinary Research on Individuals 


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Philosophy-of-Science (TPS) Paradigm

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Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS Paradigm) 




























 - Topics and findings (selection)

Research on Individuals

Research on individual-specificity ('personality')

Research on individuals

Explorations of the phenomena of the psyche and the pathways of their microgenetic, ontogenetic and (potential) phylogenetic development 
The concepts of the TPS Paradigm have been applied to trace the developmental pathways through which psychical phenomena enable individuals to increasingly become actors - as single individuals, communities and species. The analyses explored the fundamental imperceptibility of psychical phenomena and the impact that this peculiarity has had on the emergence of language, social institutions and societies (Uher, 2015d).

How the phenomena of language enable humans to overcome the fundamental imperceptibility of psychical phenomena by others
Individually developed psychical properties are perceptible only by the individual him- or herself. Concepts of the TPS Paradigm scrutinise the ways in which psychical properties can be communicated to other individuals and socially shared psychical representations can be developed, thus enabling social coordination and the transmission of knowledge to subsequent generations (Uher, 2015d)

Introspective methods contain a conceptual leap - assumptions that all psychical phenomena are quantifiable are not justified
The novel concepts of introquestion versus extroquestion introduced by the TPS Paradigm reveal that introspection cannot be clearly differentiated from extrospection and that psychophysical experiments and some first-person perspective methods are not introspective, as is often assumed. The analyses also highlighted that assumptions on the general quantifiability of psychical phenomena are not justified (Uher, 2016b, 2019 and the science blog: "Introspection put back on its feet: New research reveals conceptual leap").  

Behaviour - The essential bridge from the psyche to the environment
Behaviour is the essential interface between an individualís psychical phenomena, which are entirely internal, and that individualís (abiotic and biotic, especially social) external surrounding. Those environmental details that functionally mediate the individualís externalisations in the present (i.e., the individualís behaviour) are called the behavioural situation.

Research on individual-specificity ('personality' and individual differences)

Nomothetic and ideographic approaches: Novel perspectives on a long-lasting debate
Research on individuals has long been hampered by the scientific dictum scientia non est individuorum - the idea that a scientific discipline cannot be devoted to studying single cases given that science seeks regularities and lawfulness through abstraction and generalisation from unique events. The TPS Paradigm shows that this is not the case. Rather, it highlights that complementary applications of both between-individual and within-individual analyses are indispensable for exploring individuals (see the Hourglass-Shaped Methodology; Uher, 2015c). 

Questionnaire methods entail that contemporary "personality" psychology is largely based on everyday psychology 
The focus on lexical approaches and assessment methods entails that, so far, taxonomic "personality" psychologists have largely explored only the person-descriptive repertoires of people's everyday language and pertinent mental representations that they encode. But psychologists have seriously neglected to study also the particular phenomena that are being linguistically and mentally represented - in particular, individual-specific behaviour and experiencing - because these phenomena cannot be explored with questionnaire methods (Uher, 2013). 



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