Transdisciplinary Research on Individuals 


Research on


About this research

Philosophy-of-Science (TPS) Paradigm

  Aims and scope




Topics and findings

Empirical applications


Science Blog





Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS Paradigm)






























 - Methodological framework -

Classes of data generation methods: Phenomenon-method matching

The three metatheoretical properties determining perceptibility by humans are used to derive elementary methodological concepts and to define classes of methods that are therefore far more basic than those commonly considered (Uher, 2019).

          TPS Paradigm - Classes of methods based on perceptibility of the phenomena captured

Introquestion versus extroquestion - Overcoming limitations of concepts of introspection

The unique properties of the psyche are used in the TPS-Paradigm to distinguish methods enabling access to psychical phenomena from those that cannot. Therefore, the novel concepts of introquestion and extroquestion (derived from the Latin quaerere for to seek, enquire) are introduced. They are defined and differentiated from one another on the basis of:

  1. Particular phenomena under study (e.g., thoughts, bones, faces, stimuli of light)
  2. Persons who report on their perceptions of these phenomena

TPS Paradigm - Introquestive methodsIntroquestive methods are all procedures for studying phenomena that can be perceived only from within the individual itself and by nobody else in principle under all possible conditions. This applies to psychical phenomena, which can be explored by others only indirectly through individuals' externalisations (e.g., in behaviours, spoken language). 


TPS Paradigm - ExtroquestionExtroquestive methods, by contrast, are all procedures for studying phenomena that are or can (technically) be made perceptible by multiple individuals. This applies to all physical phenomena (including internal and immaterial ones, e.g., inner organs, bones, heat) because they can be made perceptible using invasive or technical methods (e.g. surgery, x-ray, thermometers).

These concepts differ in essential ways from previous concepts of introspection and extrospection, which do not allow to make such differentiations because they build on a methodical flaw (for details, see Uher, 2016b, 2019).

More information available in Publications and Science Blogs

© 2013-2024